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Главная » Книги » Силовая электроника » Regulated Power Supplies

Книги » Силовая электроника: Regulated Power Supplies

Regulated Power Supplies
Название: Regulated Power Supplies
Автор: Irving M. Gottlieb
Издательство: TAB Books
Год: 1992
Страниц: 476
Язык: Английский
Формат: PDF
Качество: хорошее
Размер: 10.6Mб

  For engineers, technicians and hobbyists involved in the design, testing and implementation of regulated power supplies, this fourth edition is revised to include up-to-date guidance for building regulated power supplies.
  The author provides full coverage of standard power supply sources now found in the majority of applications. He also describes how new high frequency devices such as the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), the mos-controlled thyristor (MCT), and current- and resonant-mode regulators have reduced production costs and improved power supply efficiency and reliability.

Introduction xi
1  Why use regulated power supplies?  1
Pro and con   1
Characteristics of the giant storage battery   2
Improvements in hi-fidelity amplifiers   4
The voltage-regulated power supply as a simulated capacitor   8
The ideal voltage-regulated power supply   9
Summarizing the voltage-regulated power supply   10
The current-regulated power supply   10
Other applications for the current-regulated power supply   11
Electrochemical reactions   11
Linear voltage ramps   14
Simulation of high resistance   14
Constant current in voltage-regulated supplies   15
Zener diode voltage reference   15
Stabilized emission in vacuum tubes   15
Current regulation for testing purposes   15
Unique application of the shunt-current regulator   17
Stabilization of light output from LEDs   18
Constant-current sources for photon-emitting diodes   19
Dynamic load   20
Voltage and current regulation combined   21
Accurate power regulation   23
Other applications of regulation techniques   26
Power supplies for microprocessors   29
High-voltage regulated power supplies   30
The uninterruptible power supply or system (UPS)   32
Other uses for regulated power supplies   33
Using the regulated power supply to stabilize light intensity   36
Using a regulated dc supply to stabilize RF output level of a TWT   37
Prevention of remote-sensing problems   39
Using a regulated power supply to extend transmitting-tube life   40
Other applications using regulation circuitry   41
A problem on the horizon   43
Overall view of regulated supply features   45
2  Static characteristics of regulated power supplies 47
A problem in semantics   47
A few examples of the tyranny of words   48
The basic concept of regulation   50
Beware—a trap   50
After the trap, a pitfall   51
An ambiguity—but whose?   52
Load-current regulation of a current-regulated power supply   53
Line-voltage regulation for the voltage-regulated power supply   55
Line-voltage regulation for the current-regulated power supply   57
Temperature coefficient   58
Temperature rise and heat removal in a working environment   58
Line and load regulation combined   59
Total combined regulation   61
Stability   61
Additional regulation criteria   62
Protection techniques   63
Special considerations for transient protection   68
Special IC for overvoltage protection   73
Using the crowbar technique when supply and load are far apart   75
Comments on current-limiting modes   77
Protection techniques for the three-terminal IC regulator   81
Evaluation and selection of power transistors   82
Interconnecting regulated power supplies   84
Parallel operation by means of separate pass-element
circuits   85
Parallel operation by parallel programming   85
Automatic parallel operation of two voltage-regulated power supplies   87
Automatic tracking operation of two voltage-regulated power
supplies   88
Series-connected voltage regulators   88
Automatic series operation of two voltage-regulated power
supplies   89
Dual-output tracking operation of two voltage-regulated power supplies   91
Parallel operation of current-regulated power supplies   91
Other situations   92
Basic aspects of heat removal   92
A practical example of the use of the thermal circuit   96
The effect of forced air cooling   99
The effect of heat radiation   99
The all-important matter of thermal conductivity   101
3 Dynamic characteristics of regulated power supplies 107
A look at dynamic output impedance   107
Operation of the voltage regulator   108
Dynamic behavior from static characteristics   110
Regulator as an ac feedback amplifier   110
Some comments on the output capacitor   114
Another feedback arrangement for the voltage regulator   114
Transconductance and the regulator circuit   115
The transconductance viewpoint applied to tube and transistor circuits   115
Voltage gain for triodes   116
Gain for pentodes   117
Transconductance of transistors   117
A look in retrospect at the voltage regulator   119
A closer look at the error signal   120
A still closer look at the error signal   120 Ripple   121
A new look at ripple   121 Pard   122
A practical consideration where clean dc is of importance   122
Transient responses   123
Dynamics of the constant-current supply   125
Two ways of specifying programming speed (slew rate)   127
Specifications of regulated power supplies   129
EMI and RFI   134
The output capacitor as a contributor to EMI   141
Noise benefits from synchronization of regulator switching rate   143
Some notes on shielding   144
Attenuation of noise spikes with ferrite beads   145
Feedthrough and connector-pin filters   148
Electrical noise in high-voltage supplies   149
Synchronous rectifiers   152
A subtle pitfall with regard to regulation specifications   161
4 Implementation of regulation techniques 165
Dissipation control   165
Dissipation limiting techniques   166 Double regulation   170
Dissipation control with a preregulating transistor   171
The ferroresonant constant-voltage transformer   172
The bipolar voltage-regulated power supply   174
Dual output tracking   175
The shunt voltage regulator   177
Junction field-effect transistors in dissipative regulators   179
FET characteristics important in regulated supplies   179
Using FETs in the regulator circuit   180 Switching-type regulators   185
General characteristics and use of switching-type regulators   186
Combined use of dissipative- and switching-type regulators   186
Phase-controlled switching regulators   186
The dc switching regulator   189
Some comments on inverter circuits and power switches   190
The driven inverter   194
Bridge-circuit inverters   196
Symmetry correction circuit   198
The three basic power switches   200
Regulators based on parametric power conversion  203
Unusual characteristics of the Paraformer transformer   206
The RF power supply   210
The solid-state RF high-voltage supply   212
Developing a voltage reference via the energy-gap principle   214
The off-line switching regulator   216
Pulse-width modulation   218
Line-operated power supplies using both linear and switching
techniques   221 Digitally controlled power supplies   222
The systems-oriented digital control of dc power  228
Multiple output supplies   229
Hold-up time—uninterruptible operating power for awhile   230
Regulation of ac   231
An ac voltage regulator with electronic sensing  234
Regulating a permanent-magnet alternator's charging current   236
Improving long-accepted inverter design   237
Ballparking the series inductor in the current-driven inverter   244
5 Devices and components 247
Zener diodes   248
The LVA zener diode   251
The temperature-compensated voltage reference   252
The zener diode as a transient suppressor   255
The Schottky diode   257
The LM105 positive-voltage regulator   262
The regulator circuit   263
Voltage comparator   264
The LM113 energy-gap reference diode   266
The three-terminal IC regulator   267
Special ICs for inverter-type switching regulators   270
The Silicon General SG1524/SG2524 regulating pulse-width modulator   272
Giant Darlington transistors   276
The MOSPOWER FET or power MOSFET  278
High-rating MOSFETs   282
The gate turn-off silicon-controlled rectifier   287
Transcalent power devices   291
General considerations for choke and inductor selection   292
What the hysteresis loop tells us   296
Magnetically biased chokes and transformers   298
The ferroresonant constant-voltage transformer   301
Filter capacitors   303
Tantalum electrolytic capacitors   308
Pitfalls in the use of electrolytic capacitors   310
A technological breakthrough in filter capacitors   312
Thermoelectric heat pump   315
Keep your eye on the IGBT, a new solid-state power device   318
6 Linear regulating supplies that use integrated circuits 327
Regulators that use IC operational amplifiers   327 Simple op-amp regulators   330
Voltage regulators that use the current-mirror op amp   331
Op-amp voltage regulators with current-booster stages   333
Op-amp regulator with added features   335
High-performance voltage-regulated supply that uses ICs and discrete elements   336
Regulators that use power op amps   337
A 5-A voltage/current regulator   339
Linear regulators that use the LM105 IC   340
The type 723 voltage regulator   340
Three useful regulators that are based on the MC1560/1561 IC   344
A simple ± 15-volt dual regulated supply   345
Some typical applications of fixed-voltage three-terminal IC regulators   347
Specially designed three-terminal regulators for adjustable voltage applications   349
Versatility of three-terminal IC regulators   353
Power MOSFET battery charger   354
Voltage and current regulation for low-voltage and/or low-current circuits   335
A 1.2-V, 200-jiA voltage-regulated supply   358
Low voltage from an LED   359 Low voltages from Zener regulators   360
Low voltages from reverse-biased base-emitter diodes in
transistors   361
Miscellaneous applications of linear IC regulators   361
Dual-polarity outputs from single-ended power supplies   364
Dual-polarity regulator with independently adjustable outputs   366
Automobile voltage regulator with dedicated IC   367
Paralleling regulator ICs   370
Distributed power systems   372
A unique backup source of dc power   377
7 Switching-type regulators that use integrated circuits 379
ICs for switching regulators   380
The IC switching-type regulator   381
Circuit details and operation   381
Determination of the output-filter inductor and capacitor   383
Switchers that use other popular ICs   387
Negative switching regulators   390
The constant-current switching regulator   391
Stacked switching regulator   392
A 250-W switching-mode power supply   395
A 100-W switching regulator that uses the flyback principle   401
An off-line 5-V 200-A switching supply   406
The 20-kHz clock   408
The pulse-width modulator   409
The error amplifier   410
Driver logic   410
The soft-start and overload circuit   412
A 200-kHz 50-W switching regulator that uses a power
MOSFET   416 A 500-kHz flyback-circuit switching power supply   418
Experimenter's prototype switching supply   422
The current-mode IC controller   425
The resonant-mode IC controller   430
An example of a resonant-mode regulated power supply   437
Sample list of dedicated ICs for switching supplies   444
Index 455

Ключевые теги: Regulated, Power, Supplies

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