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Название: Regulated Power Supplies Автор: Irving M. Gottlieb Издательство: TAB Books Год: 1992 Страниц: 476 Язык: Английский Формат: PDF Качество: хорошее Размер: 10.6Mб
For engineers, technicians and hobbyists involved in the design, testing and implementation of regulated power supplies, this fourth edition is revised to include up-to-date guidance for building regulated power supplies. The author provides full coverage of standard power supply sources now found in the majority of applications. He also describes how new high frequency devices such as the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), the mos-controlled thyristor (MCT), and current- and resonant-mode regulators have reduced production costs and improved power supply efficiency and reliability.
Contents Introduction xi 1 Why use regulated power supplies? 1 Pro and con 1 Characteristics of the giant storage battery 2 Improvements in hi-fidelity amplifiers 4 The voltage-regulated power supply as a simulated capacitor 8 The ideal voltage-regulated power supply 9 Summarizing the voltage-regulated power supply 10 The current-regulated power supply 10 Other applications for the current-regulated power supply 11 Electrochemical reactions 11 Linear voltage ramps 14 Simulation of high resistance 14 Constant current in voltage-regulated supplies 15 Zener diode voltage reference 15 Stabilized emission in vacuum tubes 15 Current regulation for testing purposes 15 Unique application of the shunt-current regulator 17 Stabilization of light output from LEDs 18 Constant-current sources for photon-emitting diodes 19 Dynamic load 20 Voltage and current regulation combined 21 Accurate power regulation 23 Other applications of regulation techniques 26 Power supplies for microprocessors 29 High-voltage regulated power supplies 30 The uninterruptible power supply or system (UPS) 32 Other uses for regulated power supplies 33 Using the regulated power supply to stabilize light intensity 36 Using a regulated dc supply to stabilize RF output level of a TWT 37 Prevention of remote-sensing problems 39 Using a regulated power supply to extend transmitting-tube life 40 Other applications using regulation circuitry 41 A problem on the horizon 43 Overall view of regulated supply features 45 2 Static characteristics of regulated power supplies 47 A problem in semantics 47 A few examples of the tyranny of words 48 The basic concept of regulation 50 Beware—a trap 50 After the trap, a pitfall 51 An ambiguity—but whose? 52 Load-current regulation of a current-regulated power supply 53 Line-voltage regulation for the voltage-regulated power supply 55 Line-voltage regulation for the current-regulated power supply 57 Temperature coefficient 58 Temperature rise and heat removal in a working environment 58 Line and load regulation combined 59 Total combined regulation 61 Stability 61 Additional regulation criteria 62 Protection techniques 63 Special considerations for transient protection 68 Special IC for overvoltage protection 73 Using the crowbar technique when supply and load are far apart 75 Comments on current-limiting modes 77 Protection techniques for the three-terminal IC regulator 81 Evaluation and selection of power transistors 82 Interconnecting regulated power supplies 84 Parallel operation by means of separate pass-element circuits 85 Parallel operation by parallel programming 85 Automatic parallel operation of two voltage-regulated power supplies 87 Automatic tracking operation of two voltage-regulated power supplies 88 Series-connected voltage regulators 88 Automatic series operation of two voltage-regulated power supplies 89 Dual-output tracking operation of two voltage-regulated power supplies 91 Parallel operation of current-regulated power supplies 91 Other situations 92 Basic aspects of heat removal 92 A practical example of the use of the thermal circuit 96 The effect of forced air cooling 99 The effect of heat radiation 99 The all-important matter of thermal conductivity 101 3 Dynamic characteristics of regulated power supplies 107 A look at dynamic output impedance 107 Operation of the voltage regulator 108 Dynamic behavior from static characteristics 110 Regulator as an ac feedback amplifier 110 Some comments on the output capacitor 114 Another feedback arrangement for the voltage regulator 114 Transconductance and the regulator circuit 115 The transconductance viewpoint applied to tube and transistor circuits 115 Voltage gain for triodes 116 Gain for pentodes 117 Transconductance of transistors 117 A look in retrospect at the voltage regulator 119 A closer look at the error signal 120 A still closer look at the error signal 120 Ripple 121 A new look at ripple 121 Pard 122 A practical consideration where clean dc is of importance 122 Transient responses 123 Dynamics of the constant-current supply 125 Two ways of specifying programming speed (slew rate) 127 Specifications of regulated power supplies 129 EMI and RFI 134 The output capacitor as a contributor to EMI 141 Noise benefits from synchronization of regulator switching rate 143 Some notes on shielding 144 Attenuation of noise spikes with ferrite beads 145 Feedthrough and connector-pin filters 148 Electrical noise in high-voltage supplies 149 Synchronous rectifiers 152 A subtle pitfall with regard to regulation specifications 161 4 Implementation of regulation techniques 165 Dissipation control 165 Dissipation limiting techniques 166 Double regulation 170 Dissipation control with a preregulating transistor 171 The ferroresonant constant-voltage transformer 172 The bipolar voltage-regulated power supply 174 Dual output tracking 175 The shunt voltage regulator 177 Junction field-effect transistors in dissipative regulators 179 FET characteristics important in regulated supplies 179 Using FETs in the regulator circuit 180 Switching-type regulators 185 General characteristics and use of switching-type regulators 186 Combined use of dissipative- and switching-type regulators 186 Phase-controlled switching regulators 186 The dc switching regulator 189 Some comments on inverter circuits and power switches 190 The driven inverter 194 Bridge-circuit inverters 196 Symmetry correction circuit 198 The three basic power switches 200 Regulators based on parametric power conversion 203 Unusual characteristics of the Paraformer transformer 206 The RF power supply 210 The solid-state RF high-voltage supply 212 Developing a voltage reference via the energy-gap principle 214 The off-line switching regulator 216 Pulse-width modulation 218 Line-operated power supplies using both linear and switching techniques 221 Digitally controlled power supplies 222 The systems-oriented digital control of dc power 228 Multiple output supplies 229 Hold-up time—uninterruptible operating power for awhile 230 Regulation of ac 231 An ac voltage regulator with electronic sensing 234 Regulating a permanent-magnet alternator's charging current 236 Improving long-accepted inverter design 237 Ballparking the series inductor in the current-driven inverter 244 5 Devices and components 247 Zener diodes 248 The LVA zener diode 251 The temperature-compensated voltage reference 252 The zener diode as a transient suppressor 255 The Schottky diode 257 The LM105 positive-voltage regulator 262 The regulator circuit 263 Voltage comparator 264 The LM113 energy-gap reference diode 266 The three-terminal IC regulator 267 Special ICs for inverter-type switching regulators 270 The Silicon General SG1524/SG2524 regulating pulse-width modulator 272 Giant Darlington transistors 276 The MOSPOWER FET or power MOSFET 278 High-rating MOSFETs 282 The gate turn-off silicon-controlled rectifier 287 Transcalent power devices 291 General considerations for choke and inductor selection 292 What the hysteresis loop tells us 296 Magnetically biased chokes and transformers 298 The ferroresonant constant-voltage transformer 301 Filter capacitors 303 Tantalum electrolytic capacitors 308 Pitfalls in the use of electrolytic capacitors 310 A technological breakthrough in filter capacitors 312 Thermoelectric heat pump 315 Keep your eye on the IGBT, a new solid-state power device 318 6 Linear regulating supplies that use integrated circuits 327 Regulators that use IC operational amplifiers 327 Simple op-amp regulators 330 Voltage regulators that use the current-mirror op amp 331 Op-amp voltage regulators with current-booster stages 333 Op-amp regulator with added features 335 High-performance voltage-regulated supply that uses ICs and discrete elements 336 Regulators that use power op amps 337 A 5-A voltage/current regulator 339 Linear regulators that use the LM105 IC 340 The type 723 voltage regulator 340 Three useful regulators that are based on the MC1560/1561 IC 344 A simple ± 15-volt dual regulated supply 345 Some typical applications of fixed-voltage three-terminal IC regulators 347 Specially designed three-terminal regulators for adjustable voltage applications 349 Versatility of three-terminal IC regulators 353 Power MOSFET battery charger 354 Voltage and current regulation for low-voltage and/or low-current circuits 335 A 1.2-V, 200-jiA voltage-regulated supply 358 Low voltage from an LED 359 Low voltages from Zener regulators 360 Low voltages from reverse-biased base-emitter diodes in transistors 361 Miscellaneous applications of linear IC regulators 361 Dual-polarity outputs from single-ended power supplies 364 Dual-polarity regulator with independently adjustable outputs 366 Automobile voltage regulator with dedicated IC 367 Paralleling regulator ICs 370 Distributed power systems 372 A unique backup source of dc power 377 7 Switching-type regulators that use integrated circuits 379 ICs for switching regulators 380 The IC switching-type regulator 381 Circuit details and operation 381 Determination of the output-filter inductor and capacitor 383 Switchers that use other popular ICs 387 Negative switching regulators 390 The constant-current switching regulator 391 Stacked switching regulator 392 A 250-W switching-mode power supply 395 A 100-W switching regulator that uses the flyback principle 401 An off-line 5-V 200-A switching supply 406 The 20-kHz clock 408 The pulse-width modulator 409 The error amplifier 410 Driver logic 410 The soft-start and overload circuit 412 A 200-kHz 50-W switching regulator that uses a power MOSFET 416 A 500-kHz flyback-circuit switching power supply 418 Experimenter's prototype switching supply 422 The current-mode IC controller 425 The resonant-mode IC controller 430 An example of a resonant-mode regulated power supply 437 Sample list of dedicated ICs for switching supplies 444 Index 455