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Название: Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology. Fourth edition Автор: John O. Bird Издательство: Newnes Год: 2010 Страниц: 742 Язык: Английский Формат: pdf Качество: отличное Размер: 14.9Mб
A fully comprehensive text for courses in electrical principles, circuit theory, and electrical technology, providing 800 worked examples and over 1000 further problems for students to work through at their own pace. This book is ideal for students studying engineering for the first time as part of BTEC National and other pre-degree vocational courses (especially where progression to higher levels of study is likely), as well as Higher Nationals, Foundation Degrees and first year undergraduate modules. Now in its third edition, this best-selling textbook has been updated with developments in key areas such as semiconductors, transistors, and fuel cells, along with brand new material on ABCD parameters and Fourier's Analysis. Greater emphasis is placed on real-world situations in order to ensure the reader can relate the theory to actual engineering practice. In addition, the text has been restructured throughout so that 175 Exercises now appear at regular intervals, which the student can work through to test their learning of essential concepts and check their progress.
* New edition brought fully up to date with developments in key areas such as semiconductors, transistors, and fuel cells, containing brand new material on ABCD parameters and Fourier's Analysis. * Real-world examples maximise relevance to actual engineering practice for the student reader * Extensive Solutions Manual now available online (700 worked solutions)
Part 1 Basic electrical engineering principles 1 Units associated with basic electrical quantities 1.1 SI units 1.2 Charge 1.3 Force 1.4 Work 1.5 Power 1.6 Electrical potential and e.m.f. 1.7 Resistance and conductance 1.8 Electrical power and energy 1.9 Summary of terms, units and their symbols 2 An introduction to electric circuits 2.1 Standard symbols for electrical components 2.2 Electric current and quantity of electricity 2.3 Potential difference and resistance 2.4 Basic electrical measuring instruments 2.5 Linear and non-linear devices 2.6 Ohm's law 2.7 Multiples and sub-multiples 2.8 Conductors and insulators 2.9 Electrical power and energy 2.10 Main effects of electric current 2.11 Fuses 2.12 Insulation and the dangers of constant high current flow 3 Resistance v ariation 3.1 Resistor construction 3.2 Resistance and resistivity 3.3 Temperature coefficient of resistance 3.4 Resistor colour coding and ohmic values 4 Batteries and alternativ e sources of energy 4.1 Introduction to batteries 4.2 Some chemical effects of electricity 4.3 The simple cell 4.4 Corrosion 4.5 E.m.f. and internal resistance of a cell 4.6 Primary cells 4.7 Secondary cells 4.8 Cell capacity 4.9 Safe disposal of batteries 4.10 Fuel cells 4.11 Alternative and renewable energy sources Revision Test 1 5 Series and parallel networks 5.1 Series circuits 5.2 Potential divider 5.3 Parallel networks 5.4 Current division 5.5 Loading effect 5.6 Potentiometers and rheostats 5.7 Relative and absolute voltages 5.8 Earth potential and short circuits 5.9 Wiring lamps in series and in parallel 6 Capacitors and capacitance 6.1 Introduction to capacitors 6.2 Electrostatic field 6.3 Electric field strength 6.4 Capacitance 6.5 Capacitors 6.6 Electric flux density 6.7 Permittivity 6.8 The parallel plate capacitor 6.9 Capacitors connected in parallel and series 6.10 Dielectric strength 6.11 Energy stored 6.12 Practical types of capacitor 6.13 Discharging capacitors 7 Magnetic circuits 7.1 Introduction to magnetism and magnetic circuits 7.2 Magnetic fields 7.3 Magnetic flux and flux density 7.4 Magnetomotive force and magnetic field strength 7.5 Permeability and B-H curves 7.6 Reluctance 7.7 Composite series magnetic circuits 7.8 Comparison between electrical and magnetic quantities 7.9 Hysteresis and hysteresis loss Revision Test 2 8 Electromagnetism 8.1 Magnetic field due to an electric current 8.2 Electromagnets 8.3 Force on a current-carrying conductor 8.4 Principle of operation of a simple dc. motor 8.5 Principle of operation of a moving coil-instrument 8.6 Force on a charge 9 Electromagnetic induction 9.1 Introduction to electromagnetic induction 9.2 Laws of electromagnetic induction 9.3 Rotation of a loop in a magnetic field 9.4 Inductance 9.5 Inductors 9.6 Energy stored 9.7 Inductance of a coil 9.8 Mutual inductance 10 Electrical measuring instruments and measurements 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Analogue instruments 10.3 Moving-iron instrument 10.4 The moving-coil rectifier instrument 10.5 Comparison of moving-coil, moving-iron and moving-coil rectifier instruments 10.6 Shunts and multipliers 10.7 Electronic instruments 10.8 The ohm meter 10.9 Multimeters 10.10 Wattmeters 10.11 Instrument'loading'effect 10.12 The oscilloscope 10.13 Virtual test and measuring instruments 10.14 Virtual digital storage oscilloscopes 10.15 Waveform harmonics 10.16 Logarithmic ratios 10.17 Null method of measurement 10.18 Wheatstone bridge 10.19 D.C. potentiometer 10.20 A.C. bridges 10.21 Measurementerrors 11 Semiconductor diodes 11.1 Types of material 11.2 Semiconductor materials 11.3 Conduction in semiconductor materials 11.4 The p-n junction 11.5 Forward and reverse bias 11.6 Semiconductor diodes 11.7 Characteristics and maximum ratings 11.8 Rectification 11.9 Zener diodes 11.10 Silicon controlled rectifiers 11.11 Light emitting diodes 11.12 Varactor diodes 11.13 Schottky diodes 12 Transistors 12.1 Transistor classification 12.2 Bipolar junction transistors (BJT) 12.3 Transistor action 12.4 Leakage current 12.5 Bias and current flow 12.6 Transistor operating configurations 12.7 Bipolar transistor characteristics 12.8 Transistor parameters 12.9 Current gain 12.10 Typical BJT characteristics and maximum ratings 12.11 Field eftect transistors 12.12 Field efiect transistor characteristics 12.13 Typical FET characteristics and maximum ratings 12.14 Transistor amplifiers 12.15 Load lines Revision Test 3 Main formulae for Part 1
Part 2 Electrical principles and technology 13 D.c. circuit theory 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Kirchhoff's laws 13.3 The superposition theorem 13.4 General d.c. circuit theory 13.5 Theven in's theorem 13.6 Constant-current source 13.7 Norton's theorem 13.8 Thevenin and Norton equivalent networks 13.9 Maximum power transfer theorem 14 Alternating voltages and currents 14.1 Introduction 14.2 The a.c. generator 14.3 Waveforms 14.4 A.c. values 14.5 Electrical safety - insulation and fuses 14.6 The equation of a sinusoidal waveform 14.7 Combination of waveforms 14.8 Rectification 14.9 Smoothing of the rectified output waveform Revision Test 4 15 Single-phase series a.c. circuits 15.1 Purely resistive a.c. circuit 15.2 Purely inductive a.c. circuit 15.3 Purely capacitive a.c. circuit 15.4 R-L series a.c. circuit 15.5 R-C series a.c. circuit 15.6 R-L-C series a.c. circuit 15.7 Series resonance 15.8 Q-factor 15.9 Bandwidth and selectivity 15.10 Power in a.c. circuits 15.11 Power triangle and power factor 16 Single-phase parallel a.c. circuits 16.1 Introduction 16.2 R-L parallel a.c. circuit 16.3 R-C parallel a.c. circuit 16.4 L-C parallel a.c. circuit 16.5 LR-C parallel a.c. circuit 16.6 Parallel resonance and Q-factor 16.7 Power factor improvement 17 D.c. transients 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Charging a capacitor 17.3 Time constant for a C-R circuit 17.4 Transient curves for a C-R circuit 17.5 Discharging a capacitor 17.6 Camera flash 17.7 Current growth in an L-R circuit 17.8 Time constant for an L-R circuit 17.9 Transient curves for an L-R circuit 17.10 Current decay in an L-R circuit 17.11 Switching inductive circuits 17.12 The effect of time constant on a rectangular waveform 18 Operational amplifiers 18.1 Introduction to operational amplifiers 18.2 Some op amp parameters 18.3 Op amp inverting amplifier 18.4 Op amp non-inverting amplifier 18.5 Op amp voltage-follower 18.6 Op amp summing amplifier 18.7 Op amp voltage comparator 18.8 Op amp integrator 18.9 Op amp differential amplifier 18.10 Digital to analogue (D/A) conversion 18.11 Analogue to digital (A/D) conversion Revision Test 5 19 Three-phase systems 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Three-phase supply 19.3 Star connection 19.4 Delta connection 19.5 Power in three-phase systems 19.6 Measurement of power in three-phase systems 19.7 Comparison of star and delta connections 19.8 Advantages of three-phase systems 20 Transformers 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Transformer principle of operation 20.3 Transformer no-load phasor diagram 20.4 E.m.f. equation of a transformer 20.5 Transformer on-load phasor diagram 20.6 Transformer construction 20.7 Equivalent circuit of a transformer 20.8 Regulation of a transformer 20.9 Transformer losses and efficiency 20.10 Resistance matching 20.11 Auto transformers 20.12 Isolating transformers 20.13 Three-phase transformers 20.14 Current transformers 20.15 Voltage transformers Revision Test 6 21 D.c. machines 21.1 Introduction 21.2 The action of a commutator 21.3 D.c. machine construction 21.4 Shunt, series and compound windings 21.5 E.m.f. generated in an armature winding 21.6 D.c. generators 21.7 Types of d.c. generator and their characteristics 21.8 D.c. machine losses 21.9 Efficiency of a d.c. generator 21.10 D.c. motors 21.11 Torque of a d.c. machine 21.12 Types of d.c. motor and their characteristics 21.13 The efficiency of a d.c. motor 21.14 D.c. motor starter 21.15 Speed control of d.c. motors 21.16 Motor cooling 22 Three-phase induction motors 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Production of a rotating magnetic field 22.3 Synchronous speed 22.4 Construction of a three-phase induction motor 22.5 Principle of operation of a three-phase induction motor 22.6 Slip 22.7 Rotor e.m.f. and frequency 22.8 Rotor impedance and current 22.9 Rotor copper loss 22.10 Induction motor losses and efficiency 22.11 Torque equation for an induction motor 22.12 Induction motor torque-speed characteristics 22.13 Starting methods for induction motors 22.14 Advantages of squirrel-cage induction motors 22.15 Advantages of wound rotor induction motor 22.16 Double cage induction motor 22.17 Uses of three-phase induction motors Revision Test 7 Main formulae for Part 2
Part 3 Advanced circuit theory and technology 23 Rev ision of complex numbers 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Operations involving Cartesian complex numbers 23.3 Complex equations 23.4 The polar form of a complex number 23.5 Multiplication and division using complex numbers in polar form 23.6 De Moivre's theorem — powers and roots of complex numbers 24 Application of complex numbers to series a.c. circuits 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Series a.c. circuits 24.3 Further worked problems on series a.c. circuits 25 Application of complex numbers to parallel a.c. networks 25.1 Introduction 25.2 Admittance, conductance and susceptance 25.3 Parallel a.c. networks 25.4 Further worked problems on parallel a.c. networks 26 Power in a.c. circuits 26.1 Introduction 26.2 Determination of power in a.c. circuits 26.3 Power triangle and power factor 26.4 Use of complex numbers for determination of power 26.5 Power factor improvement Revision Test 8 27 A.c. bridges 27.1 Introduction 27.2 Balance conditions for an a.c. bridge 27.3 Types of a.c. bridge circuit 27.4 Worked problems on a.c. bridges 28 Series resonance and Q-factor 28.1 Introduction 28.2 Series resonance 28.3 Q-factor 28.4 Voltage magnification 28.5 Q-factors in series 28.6 Bandwidth 28.7 Small deviations from the resonant frequency 29 Parallel resonance and Q-factor 29.1 Introduction 29.2 The LR-C parallel network 29.3 Dynamic resistance 29.4 The LR-CR parallel network 29.5 Q-factor in a parallel network 29.6 Further worked problems on parallel resonance and Q-factor Revision Test 9 30 Introduction to network analysis 30.1 Introduction 30.2 Solution of simultaneous equations using determinants 30.3 Network analysis using Kirchhoff's laws 31 Mesh-current and nodal analysis 31.1 Mesh-current analysis 31.2 Nodal analysis 32 The superposition theorem 32.1 Introduction 32.2 Using the superposition theorem 32.3 Further worked problems on the superposition theorem 33 Thevenin's and Norton's theorems 33.1 Introduction 33.2 Thevenin's theorem 33.3 Further worked problems on Thevenin's theorem 33.4 Norton's theorem 33.5 Thevenin and Norton equivalent networks Revision Test 10 34 Delta-star and star-delta transformations 34.1 Introduction 34.2 Delta and star connections 34.3 Delta-star transformation 34.4 Star-delta transformation 35 Maximum power transfer theorems and impedance matching 35.1 Maximum power transfer theorems 35.2 Impedance matching Revision Test 11 36 Complex waveforms 36.1 Introduction 36.2 The general equation for a complex waveform 36.3 Harmonic synthesis 36.4 Fourier series of periodic and non-periodic fiinctions 36.5 Even and odd functions and Fourier series over any range 36.6 Rms value, mean value and the form iactor of a complex wave 36.7 Power associated with complex waves 36.8 Harmonics in single-phase circuits 36.9 Further worked problems on harmonics in single-phase circuits 36.10 Resonance due to harmonics 36.11 Sources of harmonics 37 A numerical method of harmonic analysis 37.1 Introduction 37.2 Harmonic analysis on data given in tabular or graphical form 37.3 Complex waveform considerations 38 Magnetic materials 38.1 Revision of terms and units used with magnetic circuits 38.2 Magnetic properties of materials 38.3 Hysteresis and hysteresis loss 38.4 Eddy current loss 38.5 Separation of hysteresis and eddy current losses 38.6 Non-permanent magnetic materials 38.7 Permanent magnetic materials Revision Test 12 39 Dielectrics and dielectric loss 39.1 Electric fields, capacitance and permittivity 39.2 Polarization 39.3 Dielectric strength 39.4 Thermal effects 39.5 Mechanical properties 39.6 Types of practical capacitor 39.7 Liquid dielectrics and gas insulation 39.8 Dielectric loss and loss angle 40 Field theory 40.1 Field plotting by curvilinear squares 40.2 Capacitance between concentric cylinders 40.3 Capacitance of an isolated twin line 40.4 Energy stored in an electric field 40.5 Induced e.m.f. and inductance 40.6 Inductance of a concentric cylinder (or coaxial cable) 40.7 Inductance of an isolated twin line 40.8 Energy stored in an electromagnetic field 41 Attenuators 41.1 Introduction 41.2 Characteristic impedance 41.3 Logarithmic ratios 41.4 Symmetrical T- and n-attenuators 41.5 Insertion loss 41.6 Asymmetrical T- and n -sections 41.7 The L-section attenuator 41.8 Two-port networks in cascade 41.9 ABCD parameters 41.10 ABCD parameters for networks 41.11 Characteristic impedance in terms of ABCD parameters Revision Test 13 42 Filter networks 42.1 Introduction 42.2 Basic types of filter sections 42.3 The characteristic impedance and the attenuation of filter sections 42.4 Ladder networks 42.5 Low-pass filter sections 42.6 High-pass filter sections 42.7 Propagation coefficient and time delay in filter sections 42.8 'm-derived' filter sections 42.9 Practical composite filters 43 Magnetically coupled circuits 43.1 Introduction 43.2 Self-inductance 43.3 Mutual inductance 43.4 Coupling coefficient 43.5 Coils connected in series 43.6 Coupled circuits 43.7 Dot rule for coupled circuits 44 Transmission lines 44.1 Introduction 44.2 Transmission line primary constants 44.3 Phase delay, wavelength and velocity of propagation 44.4 Current and voltage relationships 44.5 Characteristic impedance and propagation coefficient in terms of the primary constants 44.6 Distortion on transmission lines 44.7 Wave reflection and the reflection coefficient 44.8 Standing waves and the standing wave ratio 45 Transients and Laplace transforms 45.1 Introduction 45.2 Response of R-C series circuit to a step input 45.3 Response of R-L series circuit to a step input 45.4 L-R-C series circuit response 45.5 Introduction to Laplace transforms 45.6 Inverse Laplace transforms and the solution of differential equations 45.7 Laplace transform analysis directly from the circuit diagram 45.8 L-R-C series circuit using Laplace transforms 45.9 Initial conditions Revision Test 14 Main formulae for Part 3: Adv anced circuit theory and technology
Part 4 General reference Standard electrical quantities — their symbols and units Greek alphabet Common prefixes Resistor colour coding and ohmic values Index